Access tagging ambiguity

I’ve been trying to gain a better understanding of access tagging and I’ve realized there are some tag combinations of the designated, private, customers, and permit values where the meaning is not clear to me. How do you interpret the meaning of the following three tag combinations?

Example 1: A designated snowmobile trail where a permit is required.

Since snowmobile=designated + snowmobile=permit is not a possible tag combination, access=permit + snowmobile=designated seems reasonable. However this has two possible meanings:

  1. Access is allowed for a permit holder riding a snowmobile.
  2. Access is allowed for either a permit holder using any transport type or a snowmobiler without a permit.

Example 2: A ski area where customers pay to use designated ski trails

Again ski=designated + ski=customers is not possible, but access=customers + ski=designated could mean either:

  1. Access is allowed for a paying customer on skis.
  2. Access is allowed for a paying customer using any transport type or a skier who is not a paying customer.

Example 3: A private club with designated ATV (quad bike) trails

atv=designated + atv=private is not possible, but access=private + atv=designated could mean either:

  1. Access is allowed for a club member on an ATV.
  2. Access is allowed for a club member using any transport type or an ATV rider who is not a member.

If the second meaning in each of these examples is how the tags should be interpreted, then how should one represent the first meaning in tagging? How can the fact that a way is designated for a certain transport mode but also restricted to a certain group of people be tagged?

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Ce sujet de discussion accompagne la publication sur https://community.openstreetmap.org/t/access-tagging-ambiguity/1792